Blog Moving!

Geertsenbible12 is moving and getting a makeover! This blog is an assignment for my 12th grade Christian Thought class. I didn’t get to choose the topics, and as such had to sometimes form strong opinions on things that I don’t have much of an opinion on or at least not one quite as strong as what I presented. I’m starting a new blog at http://ardentandeffervescent.wordpress.com/ and would love if you would drop by! This blog will be wholly mine, and simply about whatever I want it to be. Mostly it will be about my life, a diary of sorts. If you’d like to hear more from me give Ardent and Effervescent a visit!:)

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Senior Year Bucket List

My bucket list of things to do before graduating high school isn’t too complicated or adventurous. Read as: no skydiving or cliff diving or dangerous diving of any sort. It mostly consists of things that will be harder to do when I’m in college than it will now. For example, I would say hang out more with my parents and family, except that I already make a point to do that. So that can be checked off before it’s even added. Instead of listing everything that is on my list I think I’ll just tell you a few of the things I’ve done so far.  If you don’t know what a bucket list is, here’s a movie trailer to help you figure it out: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vc3mkG21ob4

Number one: See Annie.

It’s a musical, it’s awesome. Luckily my good friend, Faith was in a school production of Annie so I saw it and I loved it.  If you haven’t seen it, here’s one of my favorite numbers. (By the way this isn’t the production that I was at) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7viVwb9jfBk

Number two: Hang out with Faith.

Done. She is going to school in North Carolina and I in Wisconsin so who knows how many times I’ll see her before we both leave. I took the opportunity of her school’s production of Annie to go see her preform and we ended up having a sleepover. It was amazing to be able to catch up with her again; it was like we had just seen each other the day before. I feel very lucky to have the kind of friendship with her and with others that picks up where it left off despite distance and time apart.

Number three: Play with a dog.

I don’t have a dog, however I really love them. So I thought I would add this to my bucket list. I’ll probably not get many opportunities in college to hang out with dogs so why not? So while Faith was taking care of some school stuff I hung out with her dog, Tipper. He’s a fluffy little thing and absolutely adorable. And because dogs are awesome here’s a list of dogs that forgot how to dog: http://www.buzzfeed.com/erinchack/dogs-who-forgot-how-to-dog

I still have some items left on my list. I have a few presents I want for the teachers that I’ve had most of my high school career. There are still a few more friends I need to get together with. A few restaurants to try. I want to see Maleficent with my mentee when it comes out. General things like that. 

Image

Tipper

Gender roles

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Gender roles, a highly disputed topic in our modern society as well as in Christianity specifically. Some say that women should be subject to men. Some say that is an antiquated notion and both genders are equal. Some cultures even say that the women are the superior ones. It seems to be all culturally relative and that gender roles are decided by the society. I can’t argue that. I know that gender roles are determined mostly by society. There are some biological explanations; women have a tendency to be more stereotypically feminine and men vice versa.

I used to think as a Christian that men are the leaders; they are the spiritual leaders and the household leaders. Women love and obey their husbands and the husbands love and lead their wives. I’d never heard of a female pastor, except for in the children’s ministry because women obviously are supposed to take care of kids. So, what happens when as a modern western woman I’m told that men and women are equal? Woman can do whatever men can do. Including opening  jars and catsup bottles.

I’m conflicted on the subject, to be sure. I want to think, well, I can do anything. I could be a pastor if I wanted to. But doesn’t the Bible say that men should be the leaders of the church? Well why? I don’t understand. Why are men the leaders? Why can’t I be a pastor? So for no logical reason except that it’s what the Bible say, I believe that the main pastoral role should go to a man. I have no qualms about a woman being a youth minister or music leader. I do think that men should be the spiritual leader in the family. They’re the protectors, right? I mean sure, the modern woman can take care of herself and doesn’t need any men to protect her. But honestly? I might be able to protect myself but that doesn’t mean that I don’t want my husband someday to be the one to look out for our family and be the protector. That’s the kind of father a little girl or boy wants, right? Daddy to scare away the monsters?

I may not be sure about why gender roles are the way they are. I don’t know why we’ve only had male presidents; I don’t know why pastors should be male. That’s just the way it is and it would seem wrong to go against that. Not to mention, I think that the genders have a responsibility to teach their kids manners, responsibility, honoring one another and other such things that come with being ladies and gentlemen. I think that a man’s role is to be chivalrous, to show honor and respect to women. I also think that women should be able to gracefully accept the gentleman’s manners, the door held open or the helping hand extended.  I suppose that’s also based on societal standards, so maybe at the heart of it all we are equal. But I also think God had a purpose in assigning certain roles to each gender and I just don’t understand why yet.

More sources for the curious mind:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072820144/student_view0/chapter15/

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/cindy-hoang/be-a-girl-who-codes_b_5135489.html

http://www.todayschristianwoman.com/articles/2013/october/defy-those-rigid-gender-roles.html?start=3

Nihilism in TV and movies

Nihilism is prevalent in our modern media. Sometimes it’s not that obvious, sometimes it’s only one person in a multi-character TV show/ movie, but most shows have it tucked away somewhere. I made a list of my top five nihilistic TV shows/ movies. I’m sure there’s more and multiple more qualified, however these are the most obvious being some that I’ve watched and/ or have friends that watch. My qualifications for a nihilistic TV show/ movie is a show with a major character or plot element (meaning an event or the entire storyline) that exhibited a refusal to assign significance to core human issues such as A) religious expression, B) sexuality or C) death. Most shows and movies these days exhibit letter B more so than the rest, however there are plenty of options exhibiting all three; I found B and C mainly in the shows that I am exposed to.Barney

The first show is How I Met Your Mother. In How I Met Your Mother the character Barney Stinson fits the criteria for nihilism with his extreme disregard for sexuality and the feelings of others. He has an entire book of “plays” to con and woo women into his one night stands. His life seems to revolve around getting women to have sex with him, then finding a way to get rid of them in the morning once he had been satisfied. He places no significance on these relationships.

sex and the cityThe second is Sex and the City. I’ll admit that I have not seen it, I have friends who love the show and I’ve done some research on it and that is how it came to my attention. It seems to be a show focused on sex, much like Barney’s life in How I Met Your Mother. Wikipedia says the following about the tone of the show: “At a birthday party for Miranda, Carrie and her friends decide to start having sex ‘like men’, meaning without all the emotional attachment, which sets the tone for the series.” Sex and the City is yet another sex focused show, adhering to the nihilistic “B” quality.

The third show is Arrow. Arrow takes a different turn than Sex and the City or How I Met Your Mother.  Arrow’s main characterarrow Oliver moonlights as the masked vigilante known as “the Hood.” Oliver fights to avenge his father’s death using a list of ‘one-percenters’ given to him by his father. He threatens or kills these one-percenters, killing countless guards and innocents that get in his way. This is a clear example of “C” a disregard and lack of significance given toward death.

Number four is Nikita (the CW show). Although the main character, Nikita, has noble intentions and tries to avoid unnecnikitaessary killing or promiscuity, another character by the name of Percy has no such intentions. Percy sacrificed people to promiscuity, death and any other service he could sell to in order to get money and high-end clients. His utter disregard for people fulfils both B and C. If he has to send one of his recruits undercover as a prostitute he will, if the recruit refuses or does a poor job, he’ll kill them. He is clearly living like a nihilist.the expendables

The fifth and final example is a movie, The Expendables. The Expendables doesn’t need to have much said about it to show its nihilistic properties, the entire thing is. A Group goes on a mission and kills everything and everyone in its way in the most graphic way they can. The example of lack of significance assigned to death was so extreme I nearly turned it off, I didn’t, but looking back I wouldn’t have missed anything if I had.

Those are my five examples of nihilism, many of them especially Nikita ignore religion; however they don’t disregard, mock or challenge others based on religion. It seems that I watch few shows with an example of letter A.

Bible Project

Gina's Bible Blog

Our group consisted of 5 people: Abi, Alyssa, Heidi, Courtney, and Gina.

We wanted to focus on encouraging the females at HCA, so first we decided to write notes of encouragement to all the middle school girls. On each one we tried to target a few areas including trusting in God and His deep love for us. Three verses that we chose to go off of were Proverbs 3:5-6Ephesians 3:17-19 , and Romans 12:3-13. Proverbs 3:5-6 talks about trusting in God for everything and not just relying on ourselves. Ephesians 3:17-19 addresses being made full through God and the love He has for us that we can never fully comprehend. Romans 12:3-13 acknowledges that we are all members of the body of Christ and because of that we all have different functions. We are also called to genuinely love each other and encourage one another in the way…

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Wikinotes Naturalism

Naturalism

nat·u·ral·ism [ˈnaCHərəˌlizəm/]

noun

1.      (in art and literature) a style and theory of representation based on the accurate depiction of detail. 2.      a philosophical viewpoint according to which everything arises from natural properties and causes, and supernatural or spiritual explanations are excluded or discounted.

Theism: God is the infinite, personal Creator of the cosmos

Deism: “God is reduced; he begins to lose his personality, though he remains Creator and (by  implication) sustainer of the cosmos.”

Naturalism: God does not exist. Deism claims that God has always existed as a brute fact. Naturalism realizes that if that can be true, then it is equally valid to claim the physical world has always existed in the same way.

Famous Naturalists include: John Bachman, Steve Irwin, Charles Darwin (Alyssa Geertsen)

Propositions of Naturalism:

1. Matter exists eternally and is all there is. God does not exist. (pg. 61)

“In the whole universe there is but a single substance with various modifications.”

2. The cosmos exists as a uniformity of cause and effect in a closed system. (pg. 62)

The universe is not open to reordering by either… (Joe Krahn) … a transcendent Being (because no such being exists) … or autonomous human beings because they are a part of the uniformity Because humans do not exist outside of the continuity of cause and effect, their decisions are not ultimately theirs – meaning most naturalists are philosophical determinists 3. Human beings are complex “machines”; personality is an interrelation of chemical and physical properties we do not yet fully understand. (pg. 64)

Most naturalists view “mind” as subordinate to “machine,” in contrast to Descartes’ claim that mind and matter were separate yet equal substances (Joe Krahn) Naturalist still believe humans are unique for the following reasons (Annika): Capable of conceptual thought Employ speech Possess a cumulative tradition (culture) Unique method of evolution – technology is incorporated (Joe Krahn) Moral capacity “Let us conclude boldly then that man is a machine, and that in the whole universe there is but a single substance with various modifications.”

4. Death is extinction of personality and individuality. (pg. 67)

“When the matter that goes to make      up an individual is disorganized at death, that that person disappears”      (67). “Human destiny is an episode      between two oblivions” (67). “Pigeon Feathers” by John Updike—> life after death means that your life’s effects can have an influence on future generations (ex: Abe Lincoln)

5. History is a linear stream of events linked by cause and effect but without an overarching purpose. (pg. 68)

In a naturalist framework, there      is no goal for evolution.

6. Ethics is related only to human beings. (pg. 72) (Heidi Dart)

7. Man certainly was not the goal of evolution, which evidently had no goal. (Naturalism Mini Notes – Riley Smith)

Naturalism in Practice Secular Humanism (Derived from the Humanist Manifesto II – 1973):

Humans are special just because – No god (Riley Smith) God is a symbol of who humans      strive to be.

Marxism: Ideas and beliefs of Karl Marx (someone else add details) (Riley Smith)

Marx believed that history was going somewhere, heading towards utopia. Communal living on a large scale. Control the means of production (bourgeoise)–> exploit proliteriat Division of labor—> social classes (bourgeoise & proliteriat)

BELOW IS COPIED ABOVE

Propositions of naturalism:

“Let us conclude boldly then that man is a machine, and that in the whole universe there is but a single substance with various modifications.” (Heidi Dart) Very very good H-Dog Naturalist still believe humans are unique for the following reasons: Capable of conceptual thought Employ speech Possess a cumulative tradition (culture) Unique method of evolution Moral capacity

Death is extinction of personality and individuality. “When the matter that goes to make up an individual is disorganized at death, that that person disappears” (67). “Human destiny is an episode between two oblivions” (67). “Pigeon Feathers” by John Updike—> life after death means that your life’s effects can have an influence on future generations (ex: Abe Lincoln)

According to Naturalism.org, naturalism believes that intelligent design cannot exist because there is no scientific merit for it. Not every naturalist scientist believes that there is no supernatural. The main thing that you need to know about naturalists is that they do not believe in intelligent design.  (Ian “big boy” Strommen)

History is a linear stream of events linked by cause and effect but without an overarching purpose.

Ethics is related only to human beings. (pg. 72) (Heidi Dart)

Man certainly was not the goal of evolution, which evidently had no goal. (Naturalism Mini Notes – Riley Smith)

Naturalism in Practice:

Secular Humanism– Humanist Manifesto II God is a symbol of who humans strive to be.

Marxism Marx believed that history was going somewhere, heading towards utopia. Communal living on a large scale. Control the means of production (bourgeoise)–> exploit proliteriat Division of labor—> social classes (bourgeoise & proliteriat) (Annika van Oosbree)————————————

(Deism:

God created an orderly world to operate on its own.

Deists proceed from the assumption that an orderly universe exists. They see its First Cause as a Creator who does not guide its movements, intervene in human affairs, or answer prayers. Their pursuit of what is real comes through reason and sound inquiry. They do not take seriously any revelation that portrays the miraculous. Their reality is limited to nature.

Deists believe that man is a personal being who is part of the “clockwork universe.” He is not abnormal or fallen but is as he is supposed to be. Freedom to explore nature will lead to self-knowledge and understanding of the impersonal God who set up the universe.)

(Drew Kleinschmidt)

(Naturalism

Matter is all that exists and is best understood through science.

The naturalist assumes that all that really exists can best be investigated through the scientific method. Certainly matter and energy are the only realities that can be understood in this way. Unlike deism, it does not hold to God as a First Cause for the universe.

Naturalists view humans as highly developed animals who possess self-consciousness, reason, and conscience. They believe that humans are highly complex biological “machines” who have physical and mental capabilities not yet fully)

http://www.biblecultureit.com/text/worldview/worldview_comparison_chart.pdf

(Drew Kleinschmidt)

 

Aside

 

Deism [dee-iz-uh m] 
noun 

 

1. belief in the existence of a God on the evidence of reason and nature only, with rejection of supernatural revelation (distinguished from theism).

 

2. belief in a God who created the world but has since remained indifferent to it.

 

The Universe Next Door: Chapter 3 “Deism”

 

Part 1 (p. 45-50)

 

What is the first possible reason for the development of Deism that the author gives? {It was a way to unify the constantly fighting religious sects of the day -Joe Krahn}

Another factor in the shift from theism to deism was the belief that knowledge of the Divine is rooted not in special revelation but in {reason. –Regina Mott}

What did Plato believe about the nature of reality (matter , spirit) and how did Platonic theory of knowledge influence thought and scientific study in the Middle Ages?

Why is this error in study and thought not really a Biblical perspective?

Do you agree or disagree that God “is a rational God”? {Why? I believe that God is rational in the sense that He often/usually acts in ways which make sense (appear “rational”) to us. However, this certainly does not mean that God is incapable of acting “irrationally” from our perspective: He may defy His own laws of physics, do something the purpose of which we as humans cannot fathom, etc. So in that sense, He is not entirely “rational,” because any way you slice it, God’s ways are usually beyond our logic and understanding! -Allison Deckert}  {In addition, I believe that the idea of God is irrational- because of the entirety of the faith concept- However, God is rational, because who are we to define what is rational and what isn’t? Even if we think His acts are irrational, we cannot fathom, as humans, the purpose of what He is doing or the reasons behind it (like Allison said above). –Emily Hunt}

Coming out of the Middle Ages, there were those like Isaac Newton who thought that God’s universe was orderly, knowable, rational and worth exploration. What kind of picture of God’s world did scientists like Newton begin to paint?

This time period and pursuit of knowledge about the universe and reality began the modern study of what subject?

Peter Medewar argued that the 17th century’s doctrine of the necessity of reason paved the way for what belief?

How did deists come to the conclusion of God as a “giant clockmaker”?

What would be the main difference about the belief in what/how one can have knowledge of God between theists and deists?

Give a couple examples of how basic deism was not a united school of thought:

How would a deist define God as “Prime Mover”?

(Deists define God as a “Prime Mover” because he set all of creation up. He put everything into place, but is not directly involved in it. As the book states, he is merely a “force of energy”. He just “moved” things, but had no personal influence on them.) -Drew Kleinschmidt

In what ways is the universe “closed” to a deist? {Not only is it outside God’s active interference, but it is also outside our ability as humans to control its laws and events. In one sense, as we talked about, the universe is like a large, intricate clock: fully complete, ticking endlessly on and on, independent of our control and God’s intervention. -Allison Deckert}

How does this eliminate the possibility of miracles? {In this view a miracle cannot happen because God is not able to interfere or else it would appear to be tampering with the universe; therefore it would look like God was making a mistake. –Regina Mott}

How do deists deny the real possibility of free will in humans and what is their reasoning for doing so?

Deists believe human beings “are what we are”, humans are not able to “reverse the order” or “act significantly”.  Deists believe all humans are created with intelligence, morality, desire for community, and creativity however “humans are what they are, they have little hope of becoming anything different or anything more”. (p.50) (Paige Berge)

Facts/Notes on Deism Part 2 (p. 51-58)

 

What do deists believe about the state of the universe?

Deists believe that the universe is “essentially as God created it”. The universe has not fallen and has not differed from creation. The universe is unchanged. Deists believe that because the universe is unchanged, we can then learn about God through nature and “the study of His universe” (p.51) (Paige Berge)

Deists believe that God created the world. However, once God created the world, they believe that he left it alone. (Erik Schultz)

What inconsistencies do deists face about the knowledge of God by eliminating the possibility of “revelation”?

On the topic of “Everything that is, is right” and the dilemma that it creates with ethics. {If whatever exists is right, then wrong/evil do not exist. Only what is right exists. Pain and sin are obvious in our nature, so evil must exist. But if whatever “is” is good, then evil does not exist. You can’t hold to ”whatever is is right” and still have morals in a world full of evil. The two concepts are contradictory. -Molly Matuszak}

How did some deists view Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount?

What might some deists believe about history and how would this differ from a Biblical perspective? ( A deists perspective on history would be that it is generally not important. Deists would believe that every single moment is a part of the clockwork, so they are insignificant. Specific acts from the past are indifferent. As Christians, we can see divine law in action. We can see humans past mistakes and learn from them.) -Drew Kleinschmidt

Deism was most popular in France and England in the 17th Century. (Nick Wilson)

Deism could not survive as a worldview. {People were left with a relativity of knowledge that they found hard to accept. -Emily Hunt}

On the topic of human significance in Deism{If everything is determined and set in stone, then nothing humans say or do has any impact on any other human or situation which eliminates all significance of what we choose to spend our time doing because it is all meaningless. If we have no choice, we have no significance within ourselves. -Molly Matuszak}  {A human cannot have significance if the universe cannot be reordered -Emily Hunt}

Deism is seen as a transitional viewpoint, meaning that it was derived from a viewpoint and has somehow evolved into the thing that it is today. In the case of deism, it has evolved or was derived from a form of theism, and in some way it is leading then to naturalism.

Give me some examples of a kind of practical deism found in some scientists:

Wikinotes

WikiNotes Update:
Deism [dee-iz-uh m] 
noun
1. belief in the existence of a God on the evidence of reason and nature only, with rejection of supernatural revelation (distinguished from theism).
2. belief in a God who created the world but has since remained indifferent to it.
The Universe Next Door: Chapter 3 “Deism”
Part 1 (p. 45-50)
What is the first possible reason for the development of Deism that the author gives? {It was a way to unify the constantly fighting religious sects of the day -Joe Krahn}
Another factor in the shift from theism to deism was the belief that knowledge of the Divine is rooted not in special revelation but in {reason. –Regina Mott}
What did Plato believe about the nature of reality (matter , spirit) and how did Platonic theory of knowledge influence thought and scientific study in the Middle Ages?
Why is this error in study and thought not really a Biblical perspective?
Do you agree or disagree that God “is a rational God”? {Why? I believe that God is rational in the sense that He often/usually acts in ways which make sense (appear “rational”) to us. However, this certainly does not mean that God is incapable of acting “irrationally” from our perspective: He may defy His own laws of physics, do something the purpose of which we as humans cannot fathom, etc. So in that sense, He is not entirely “rational,” because any way you slice it, God’s ways are usually beyond our logic and understanding! -Allison Deckert} {In addition, I believe that the idea of God is irrational- because of the entirety of the faith concept- However, God is rational, because who are we to define what is rational and what isn’t? Even if we think His acts are irrational, we cannot fathom, as humans, the purpose of what He is doing or the reasons behind it (like Allison said above). –Emily Hunt}
Coming out of the Middle Ages, there were those like Isaac Newton who thought that God’s universe was orderly, knowable, rational and worth exploration. What kind of picture of God’s world did scientists like Newton begin to paint?
This time period and pursuit of knowledge about the universe and reality began the modern study of what subject?
Peter Medewar argued that the 17th century’s doctrine of the necessity of reason paved the way for what belief?
How did deists come to the conclusion of God as a “giant clockmaker”?
What would be the main difference about the belief in what/how one can have knowledge of God between theists and deists?
Give a couple examples of how basic deism was not a united school of thought:
How would a deist define God as “Prime Mover”?
(They view God as a “Prime Mover” because they think that he created the world, but stepped back after that to just watch it and let stuff happen.)-Tanner Tripp
(Deists define God as a “Prime Mover” because he set all of creation up. He put everything into place, but is not directly involved in it. As the book states, he is merely a “force of energy”. He just “moved” things, but had no personal influence on them.) -Drew Kleinschmidt
In what ways is the universe “closed” to a deist? {Not only is it outside God’s active interference, but it is also outside our ability as humans to control its laws and events. In one sense, as we talked about, the universe is like a large, intricate clock: fully complete, ticking endlessly on and on, independent of our control and God’s intervention. -Allison Deckert}
How does this eliminate the possibility of miracles? {In this view a miracle cannot happen because God is not able to interfere or else it would appear to be tampering with the universe; therefore it would look like God was making a mistake. –Regina Mott}
How do deists deny the real possibility of free will in humans and what is their reasoning for doing so?
Facts/Notes on Deism Part 2 (p. 51-58)

What do deists believe about the state of the universe? Some deists see design in nature and purpose in the universe and in their lives (Prime Designer). Others see God and the universe in a co-creative process (Prime Motivator). Some deists view God in classical terms and see God as observing humanity but not directly intervening in our lives (Prime Observer), while others see God as a subtle and persuasive spirit who created the world, but then stepped back to observe (Prime Mover).[Kyleigh Hall]
Deists believe that God created the world. However, once God created the world, they believe that he left it alone. (Erik Schultz)
What inconsistencies do deists face about the knowledge of God by eliminating the possibility of “revelation”?
On the topic of “Everything that is, is right” and the dilemma that it creates with ethics. {If whatever exists is right, then wrong/evil do not exist. Only what is right exists. Pain and sin are obvious in our nature, so evil must exist. But if whatever “is” is good, then evil does not exist. You can’t hold to ”whatever is is right” and still have morals in a world full of evil. The two concepts are contradictory. -Molly Matuszak}
How did some deists view Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount? Deists view Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount is that it is natural law. They view it as simply rules on ethics rather than moral guidance to glorify God with (Annika van Oosbree).
What might some deists believe about history and how would this differ from a Biblical perspective? ( A deists perspective on history would be that it is generally not important. Deists would believe that every single moment is a part of the clockwork, so they are insignificant. Specific acts from the past are indifferent. As Christians, we can see divine law in action. We can see humans past mistakes and learn from them.) -Drew Kleinschmidt
Deism was most popular in France and England in the 17th Century. (Nick Wilson)
Deism could not survive as a worldview. {People were left with a relativity of knowledge that they found hard to accept. -Emily Hunt}
On the topic of human significance in Deism{If everything is determined and set in stone, then nothing humans say or do has any impact on any other human or situation which eliminates all significance of what we choose to spend our time doing because it is all meaningless. If we have no choice, we have no significance within ourselves. -Molly Matuszak} {A human cannot have significance if the universe cannot be reordered -Emily Hunt}
Deism is seen as a transitional viewpoint, meaning that it was derived from a viewpoint and has somehow evolved into the thing that it is today. In the case of deism, it has evolved or was derived from a form of theism, and in some way it is leading then to naturalism.
Give me some examples of a kind of practical deism found in some scientists:
Einstein was said to be a deist, this is his view on religion, “My religion consists of a humble admiration of the illimitable superior spirit who reveals himself in the slight details we are able to perceive with our frail and feeble minds. That deeply emotional conviction of the presence of a superior reasoning power, which is revealed in the incomprehensible universe, forms my idea of God.” (Alyssa Geertsen)